Agricultural research in Africa International Institute for Professional Training and Research  started formally with the establishment of a Authorities of Adam Smith University the Mother Institution of AIIPTR at USA.This Institute is part of a network of gardens established under AIIPTR rule, focusing on the introduction of new crops. Formerly the Forestry and Botanical Department (renamed Institute of Agricultural ) for Africa at Large was created. This was divided into two regional departments resulting in the establishment of a Department apr 28, 2014 – order baclofen online without prescription buy baclofen online – baclofen buy baclofen online without a prescription * baclofen from mexico of Agriculture . And then with Africa’s unification, the two departments were merged to form a new Department of Agriculture.

Progress was made in terms of infrastructure and human resources resulting in new research stations, more research personnel, and a more technical research program that included plant breeding and plant pathology. Research continued to focus, however, on export crops like oil palm, rubber, cotton and cocoa.

The Forestry and Veterinary Departments were also established , but only began undertaking research activities recently . Fishery research came much later, with the establishment of the Fisheries Development Branch by the Department of Agriculture.

Agricultural research was largely the domain of the local colonial government until World War II, when the British government sought a more active role in the promotion of science and technology in its colonies, which led to the creation of several regional agricultural research organizations in West Africa that complemented or partially replaced existing facilities and which were part of the West African Inter-territorial Research Organisation (WAIFRO). Three of these—the West African Institute for Oil palm Research (WAIFOR), the West Africa Institute for Trypanosomiasis Research (WAITR), and the West African Stored Products Research Unit (WASPRU)—were located in Africa.

International Advisory Committee on Improving Linkages between Research and Production was then inaugurated with the following Terms of Reference (TOR)

  • To identify existing constraints and limitations on linkages
  • To recommend strategies to enhance public and private partnerships in research
  • To propose strategies for enhancing linkages between research and production
  • To identify roles of key stakeholders in improving linkages
  • To set targets for research institutes as well as streamline their basic functions

International Advisory  Implementation Committee on Improving Linkages between Research and Production was then inaugurated and mandated to:

  1. Ensure the systematic and consistent implementation of all the recommendations of the PAC
  2. Give quarterly report on the implementation status/stages to the Presidential Forum.



There is opportunity for student that has International Diploma, Higher  International Diploma and International Post Graduate Diploma from our Professional Institutes to go for Academic Programs in following Countries :- Togo, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Kenya, Republic of Benin etc for further degree study without any additional tuition fee but the student will be responsible for his/her transport, examination fee and accommodation. As well apply to those who apply post graduate programs such as master degree and doctoral degree that they can have degree by research and academic degree in post graduate study.

Degree by research is a degree being obtain as a result of research taken by the student in prove of the certificate that will be awarded to the student. Furthermore self designed concentration are also available, that student can prove their innovations in area of their research at any time at any where. Degree by research is a perfect recognition of student intelligence and hard-work done by graduate and post graduate level by AIIPTR/ASU.

Student can get their degree research certificate and transcript with other necessary information that suppose to accomplish their certificate by AIIPTR/ASU.


University Academic degree Programs is the academic work completed in residence institution accredited by AIIPTR/ASU or transfer of credit from other institutions across the globe to award degree directly from Adam Smith University.

Academic and Professional Programmes

We are offered both Academic and Professional Courses by Following: University Academic Degrees such as Associate Degree, Bachelor Degree, Master Degree, Doctoral Degree, Post Doctoral Degree , Institute Degrees by Research ,such as Associate Degree by research, Bachelor Degree by research, Master Degree by research, Doctoral Degree by research, Post Doctoral Degree by research(Academic and Professional  , International Higher Diplomas(Academic and Professional), , Post Graduate Courses that lead to awarding academic and Professional Degrees, International Diplomas (Academic and Professional),International  Certificates (Academic and Professional)as well different Professional  Membership categories such as Fellowship, Full Membership, Associate member, Corporate Institutional  member, Graduate /Mature Candidate member ,Student Member  of our various institutes

 Africa International Institute for Professional Training and Research Classes of Membership

Africa International Institute for Professional Training and Research has five classes of membership and they are Fellows, Members, Licentiates, Associates and Graduate Members.

Fellows, Members and Licentiates are corporate members of Africa International Institute for Professional Training and Research    . Members of   Africa International Institute for Professional Training and Research   are elected or transferred to various classes of membership based on their qualification and experience as specified by the Council.

A practising Professional in their area of their course of studies   seeking admission to the class of Fellows, should meet conditions set for can i order prednisone online can i order prednisone online order Deltasone the class of Members as well as fifteen years of professional experience, of which at least five years should include responsible charge of important of professional in their area of studies such accounting, Computer Science, geological operations, or function as a consultant or advisor in the branches of their course of studies.

Admission into the class of Members requires practising of their areas of studies to be at least 21 years of age, with a Bachelor’s degree with Honours in that particular area such as geology recognized  by the African Government, as well as three years of professional experience in a branch of  course of studies .

Admission to the class of Licentiates requires applicants to be at least buy fluoxetine online, fluoxetine hcl 40 mg side effects, fluoxetine hcl 30mg. 21 years of age, posses at least a Diploma in course of studies such as account, geology or equivalent qualification, five years experience in a branch of their courses and pass membership examinations provided by Africa International Institute for Professional Training and Research or other external examinations recognized by the Council.

A candidate for election into the class of Associate Member shall be a person who has online canadian pharmacy store! buy zoloft cod . express delivery, cheap zoloft. a diploma or degree in any professional discipline other than their area of studies.

He/or She has demonstrated a keen interest in their of courses  and has worked in projects or areas which required input by that particular subject such Biologist, Computer Scientist, geologists.

Graduate Members should have a Bachelor’s degree with Honors in their courses that recognized by the African Government or equivalent qualification.


This category of Membership is reserved for corporate entries and Institutions in specialized and relevant area that wish to be identified with the noble course of the Institute by having the capacity 25 aug 2013 … buy female viagra online. check our offer with free pharm us delivery! of creating an idea oriented forum for the benefit of the \institute ‘s is members and employees.

Corporate Institutional bodies are entities to use the abbreviation CMAIIPTR after their organization names.


Fresh graduate in relevant and related disciplines are eligible for membership admission under this category. An individual with modest academic qualification(s) with long period of pratical on –the—job experience of not less than (10) years is also eligible to apply for Graduate Membership of the Institute. To qualify for Associate Membership, the holder of a Graduate membership is mandatorily required to sit for two papers in professional Examination II and the whole papers in professional examination III of the Institute. Holders or awardees are entitled to use the abbreviation GAIIPTR after their names.


For studentship admission, candidate must possess following:

(1)   5 O level Credit passes including English and Mathematics from any recognized examination bodies.

(2)   Good Credit or passes at OND or HND level of any field

(3)   First or Second Degrees of any Accredited University.

(4)   Professional certificate, Diplomas and any other recognized certificates by the different Councils.

Albert Howard was born at Bishop’s Castle, Shropshire. He was the son of Richard Howard, a farmer, and Ann Howard, née Kilvert. He was educated at Wrekin College, Royal College of Science, South Kensington, and as Foundation Scholar, at St. John’s College, Cambridge. In 1896, he graduated in Natural Sciences at Cambridge, where he also obtained a Diploma of Agriculture in 1897. In 1899, he lectured in Agricultural Science at Harrison College, Barbados, and in 1899 and 1902, was a Mycologist and Agricultural Lecturer at the Imperial Department of Agriculture for the West Indies. From 1903-1905, he was Botanist to the South-Eastern Agricultural College, Wye; and from 1905–1924, he was Imperial Economic Botanist to the Government of India. In 1914, he was created a Companion of the Indian Empire (C.I.E.), and received a Silver Medal of the Royal Society of Arts in 1920. From 1924-1931, Howard was Director of the Institute of Plant Industry, Indore, and Agricultural Adviser to States in Central India and Rajputana. He was made a Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1928, and in 1930 received the Barclay Memorial Medal of that society. He was knighted in 1934, and made an Honourable Fellow of the Imperial College of Science in 1935.[2][3]

Howard worked in India as agricultural adviser and was in charge of a government research farm at Indore.[4] He worked together with Gabrielle Louise Caroline Matthaei (1876–1930), and her sister Louise Ernestine Matthaei (1880–1969). He married Gabrielle in 1905. After her death, he married Louise in 1931.[2][5] Gabrielle was herself a professionally trained and competent botanist,[2] and indeed the contribution of both women to organic farming is said to be underestimated.[5]

Howard observed and came to support traditional Indian farming practices over conventional agricultural science. Though he journeyed to India to teach Western agricultural techniques he found that the Indians could in fact teach him more. One important aspect he took notice of was the connection between healthy soil and the villages’ healthy populations, livestock and crop. Patrick Holden, Director of the UK Soil Association quoted Howard as saying “the health of soil, plant, animal and man is one and indivisible.” He was president of the 13th session of the Indian Science Congress in 1926.

Howard has been called the father of modern composting, for his refinement of a traditional Indian composting system into what is now known as the Indore method. He went on to document and develop organic farming techniques, and spread his knowledge through the UK-based Soil Association, and the Rodale Institute in theUS. His 1940 bookAn Agricultural Testament, is a classic organic farming text. It was his first book aimed at the general public, and is his best popularly known work. However his 1931 book The Waste Products of Agriculture, based on 26 years of studying improved crop production in Indian smallholdings, is considered by some as his most important scientific publication.[1] His 1945 book Farming and Gardening for Health or Disease was also intended for a general audience, and was republished in 1947 as The Soil and Health: A Study of Organic Agriculture.[1] Howard’s work influenced and inspired many farmers and agricultural scientists who furthered the organic movement, including Lady Eve Balfour (the Haughley ExperimentThe Living Soil) and J.I. Rodale (Rodale Institute).

Howard advocated studying the forest in order to farm like the forest. He devoted the last half of his career to understanding that end, presaging those contemporary ecologists who advocate the understanding of the interface between ecology and agriculture.[6][7] Indeed, Howard is grouped, along with Sir Robert McCarrison andRichard St. Barbe Baker, as one of three progenitors of the organic agriculture movement.[8][9]


The following is a selection of publications by Albert Howard, including his better known works, and some lesser known publications. His knighthood was conferred in 1934, so in publications prior to that, he is not referred to as “Sir”. Even subsequent to that, he did not always refer to himself as “Sir”, as per his contribution to Naturein 1936, and his correspondence to the British Medical Journal in 1939. In the listings below, as far as known, in those from 1945 onwards, he is cited as “Sir Albert Howard”, hence his authorship is not duplicated thereafter. See also External links section, where further publications by him may be read online.

  • Howard, Albert & Howard, Gabrielle L.C (1907), “Note on Immune Wheats”, The Journal of Agricultural Science (Cambridge University Press) 2 (03): 278–280,doi:10.1017/S0021859600000575
  • Howard, Albert; Howard, Gabrielle L.C.; & Khan, Abdur Rahman (1910), The economic significance of natural cross-fertilization in India, India Dept. of Agriculture. Memoirs. Botanical series, Vol. III, (No.6) Calcutta: Thacker, Spink & Co.; London: W. Thacker & Co.  (Published for the Imperial Department of Agriculture in India; Calcutta). Listing at Open Library
  • Greenwell, Sir Bernard; Howard, Sir Albert; & Wrench, G.T. (February 1939), “Address to a Meeting of the Farmers’ Club”, Journal of the Farmers’ Club (Part 1)
  • Howard, Albert (May 27, 1939), “Medical “Testament” on Nutrition (correspondence concerning the Cheshire Medical Testament on Nutrition)”, British Medical Journal 1 (4090): 1106, doi:10.1136/bmj.1.4090.1106  (Registration to view BMJ articles is free).
  • Howard, Albert (July 29, 1939), “”Medical Testament” on Nutrition (correspondence)”, British Medical Journal 2 (4099): 251, doi:10.1136/bmj.2.4099.251
  • . (March 1947), “Harnessing the Earthworm”, Organic Gardening 10 (4)
  • . (April 1947), “Organic Campaign”, Organic Gardening 10 (5)
  • . (November 1947), “How to Avoid a Famine of Quality”, Organic Gardening 11 (5)


  • Heckman, J (2006), “A history of organic farming: Transitions from Sir Albert Howard’s War in the Soil to USDA National Organic Program”, Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems (Cambridge University Press) 21 (03): 143–150, doi:10.1079/RAF2005126
  • Rodale, J.J (December 1947), “Sir Albert Howard: In Memoriam”, Organic Gardening 2 (6)


  1. ^The online reproduction of Howard’s 1931 work refers to him as “Sir Albert Howard”. However, this is an error. He was not knighted until 1934, and would not have been referred to as Sir. The error is an artifact of the manner in which Howard’s name has passed into contemporary public knowledge, via his two most famous booksAn Agricultural Testament (first published 1940), and Soil and Health (first published 1945 under a different title, but known mostly by this 1947 title), by which time he was referred to as “Sir”. Indeed, prior to the advent of the internet and the related information explosion, these were the only two works popularly known by all but the most dedicated researchers, with even less known about his life history, beyond brief synopses associated with the books, and replicated in various book descriptions.[10]


  1. a b c Stinner, D.H (2007), “The Science of Organic Farming”, in William Lockeretz, Organic Farming: An International History, Oxfordshire, UK & Cambridge, Massachusetts: CAB International (CABI), pp. 40–72, ISBN 978-0-85199-833-6, retrieved 10 August 2010  ebook ISBN 978-1-84593-289-3
  2. a b c Howard, Louise E (1953), Sir Albert Howard in India, London: Faber & Faber,, retrieved 10 August 2010 pdf version
  3. ^ “Notification of Knighthood conferred 30 June 1934″The London Gazette (No.34066): 4223, 3 July 1934,, retrieved 10 August 2010
  4. ^ Solomon, Steve. “Sir Albert Howard’s Indore Method”Organic Gardener’s Composting. Soil And Health Library. Archived from the original on 24 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-06-20.
  5. a b Vogt, G (2007), “The Origins of Organic Farming”, in William Lockeretz, Organic Farming: An International History, Oxfordshire, UK & Cambridge, Massachusetts: CAB International (CABI), pp. 9–29, ISBN 978-0-85199-833-6, retrieved 10 August 2010  ebook ISBN 978-1-84593-289-3
  6. ^ Jackson, Wes & Piper, Jon (December 1989), “The Necessary Marriage Between Ecology and Agriculture”Ecology 70 (6): 1591–1593, doi:10.2307/1938090,, retrieved 9 August 2010  JSTOR citation for page accuracy
  7. ^ Jackson, Wes (2002), “Natural systems agriculture: a truly radical alternative”Agricultural Ecosystems and Environment 88 (2): 111–117, doi:10.1016/S0167-8809(01)00247-X, retrieved 10 August 2010
  8. ^ Mantle, Paul, “Two Reviews (see review of Origins of the Organic Movement)”Tributes (The Man of the Trees: Richard St. Barbe Baker): p. 7,, retrieved 14 August 2010
  9. ^ Sayre, Laura (4 March 2004), Review: The Origins of the Organic MovementRodale Institute,, retrieved 14 August 2010
  10. ^ Out of print description of An Agricultural Testament, description is verbatim from rear of dust-cover, Cumberland Books website,, retrieved 10 August 2010