The Institute for Community Health (ICH) is a unique collaboration among Africa health care systems to improve the health of Africa, Somerville, and surrounding towns.

The goals of ICH are to advance community health research; promote community health education and training; develop community action programs and policy; and forge linkages among health care systems, community partners, and academic institutions with shared community health objectives.

ICH’s work is based primarily in the cities of Africa , Somerville, and surrounding communities which have ethnically, economically, and culturally diverse populations. These cities have a strong tradition of collaboration among their city agencies, community organizations, and academic institutions.
Underlying all Institute work is a commitment to understanding and respecting diverse populations, safeguarding privacy, and building lasting relationships among partners.

What We Do

ICH delivers a breakthrough approach to building sustainable community health. Designed by three healthcare systems, our partners, and our staff, ICH collaborates with communities to develop a substantive capacity for solving complex public health challenges over the long term – one win at a time!

Our research, evaluation, facilitation, and networking services are delivered in trusting partnerships with community agencies. Taken together, this approach produces the systemic thinking and evidence-based outcomes needed to tackle the toughest challenges such as childhood obesity or substance abuse. After all, evidence is a currency whose value keeps growing.

A sustainable community health movement is a powerful, emerging force for good. We invite you to share our passion for a cause and a community that are formative and yet well tested.

How We Work

Methodological Expertise

•    Community Needs Assessment
•    Program Evaluation
•    Qualitative Methods such as focus groups and interviews
•    Quantitative Methods such as surveys and intervention research
•    Participatory Research Methods

Our services include:
Developing evaluation plans
Designing research plans
Designing data collection tools
Database development
Data analysis
Reporting on finding
Education and training in CBPR
Technical assistance with proposal development
Our Work

ICH believes that effective collaboration requires working together to understand the big picture with all of its systemic complexity in the areas of research, evaluation, education, facilitation, and capacity building. Five characteristics define how ICH works with communities to build sustainable health: long-term commitment, deeply dapoxetine is used as a treatment for premature ejaculation. buy dapoxetine in pakistan . save up to 70% on rx cost. viagra and dapoxetine online! substantive approaches, collaborative partnership, behavioral and preventative orientation, and outcome and evidence focus.



There is opportunity for student that has International Diploma, Higher  International Diploma and International Post Graduate Diploma from our Professional Institutes to go for Academic Programs in following Countries :- Togo, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia, Kenya, Republic of Benin etc for further degree study without any additional tuition fee but the student will be responsible for his/her transport, examination fee and accommodation. As well apply to those who apply online canadian pharmacy store! generic zoloft weight gain . approved pharmacy, generic zoloft versus zoloft . post graduate programs such as master degree and doctoral degree that they can have degree by research and academic degree in post graduate study.

Degree by research is a degree being obtain as a result of research taken by the student in prove of the certificate that will be awarded to the student. Furthermore self designed concentration are also available, that student can prove their innovations in area of their research at any time at any where. Degree by research is a perfect recognition of student intelligence and hard-work done by graduate and post graduate level by AIIPTR/ASU.

Student can get their degree research certificate and transcript with other necessary information that suppose to accomplish their certificate by AIIPTR/ASU.


University Academic degree Programs is the academic work completed in residence institution accredited by AIIPTR/ASU or transfer of credit from other institutions across the globe to award degree directly from Adam Smith University.

Academic and Professional Programmes

We are offered both Academic and Professional Courses by Following: University Academic Degrees such as Associate Degree, Bachelor Degree, Master Degree, Doctoral Degree, Post Doctoral Degree , Institute Degrees by Research ,such as Associate Degree by research, Bachelor Degree by research, Master Degree by research, Doctoral Degree by research, Post Doctoral Degree by research(Academic and Professional  , International Higher Diplomas(Academic and Professional), , Post Graduate Courses that lead to awarding academic and Professional Degrees, International Diplomas (Academic and Professional),International  Certificates (Academic and Professional)as well different Professional  Membership categories such as Fellowship, Full Membership, Associate member, Corporate Institutional  member, Graduate /Mature Candidate member ,Student Member  of our various institutes

Africa International Institute for Professional Training and Research Classes of Membership

Africa International Institute for Professional Training and Research has five classes of membership and they are Fellows, Members, Licentiates, Associates and Graduate Members.

Fellows, Members and Licentiates are corporate members of Africa International Institute for Professional Training and Research    . Members of   Africa International Institute for Professional Training and Research   are elected or how can i order prednisone or another pill like it, deltasone 20 for sale, why is how to get deltasone, buy deltasone online in canada no prescription cheap,  transferred to various classes of membership based on their qualification and experience as specified by the Council.

A practising Professional in their area of their course of studies   seeking admission to the class of Fellows, should meet conditions set for the class of Members as well as fifteen years of professional experience, of which at least five years should include responsible charge of important of professional in their area of studies such accounting, Computer Science, geological operations, or function as a consultant or advisor in the branches of their course of studies.

Admission into the class of Members requires practising of their areas of studies to be order online at usa pharmacy! zoloft medication cost . express delivery, safegeneric zoloft. at least 21 years of age, with a Bachelor’s degree with Honours in that particular area such as geology recognized  by the African Government, as well as three years of professional experience in a branch of  course of studies .

Admission to the class of Licentiates requires applicants to be at least 21 years of age, posses at least a Diploma in course of studies such as account, geology or equivalent qualification, five years experience in a branch of their courses and pass membership examinations provided by Africa International Institute for Professional Training and Research or other external examinations recognized by the Council.

A candidate for election into the class of Associate Member shall be a person who has a diploma or degree in any professional discipline other than their area of studies.

He/or She has demonstrated a keen interest in their of courses  and has worked in projects or areas which required input by that particular subject such Biologist, Computer Scientist, geologists.

Graduate Members should have a Bachelor’s degree with Honors in their courses that recognized by the African Government or equivalent qualification.


This category of Membership is reserved for corporate entries and Institutions in specialized and relevant area that wish to be identified with the noble course of the Institute by having the capacity of creating an idea oriented forum for the benefit of the \institute ‘s is members and employees.

Corporate Institutional bodies are entities to use the abbreviation CMAIIPTR after their organization names.


Fresh graduate in relevant and related disciplines are eligible for membership admission under this category. An individual with modest academic qualification(s) with long period of pratical on –the—job experience of not less than (10) years is also eligible to apply for Graduate Membership of the Institute. To qualify for Associate Membership, the holder of a Graduate membership is mandatorily required to sit for two papers in professional Examination II and the whole papers in professional examination III of the Institute. Holders or awardees are entitled to use the abbreviation GAIIPTR after their names.


For studentship admission, candidate must possess following:-

(1)   5 O level Credit passes including English and Mathematics from any recognized examination bodies.

(2)   Good Credit or passes at OND or HND level of any field

(3)   First or Second Degree =s of any Accredited University.

(4)   Professional certificate, Diplomas and any other recognized certificates by the different Councils.

William Osler International Institute of Community Health

Sir William Osler, 1st Baronet (/ˈɒz.lə/, July 12, 1849 – December 29, 1919) was a Canadian physician. He was one of the “Big Four” founding professors at Johns Hopkins Hospital as the first Professor of Medicine and founder of the Medical Service there. (The “Big Four” were William Osler, Professor of Medicine; William Stewart Halsted, Professor of Surgery; Howard A. Kelly, Professor of Gynecology; and William H. Welch, Professor of Pathology.) Osler created the first residency program for specialty training of physicians, and he was the first to bring medical students out of the lecture hall for bedside clinical training.[1]

He has been called the “Father of modern medicine.”[2] Osler was a multifaceted physician and individual, functioning as a pathologistinternisteducatorbibliophile,historianauthor, and renowned practical joker.

William’s great grandfather, Edward Osler, was variously described as either a merchant seaman or a pirate, and one of William’s uncles (Edward Osler 1798-1863), a medical officer in the Navy, wrote the Life of Lord Exmouth and the poem The Voyage. William Osler’s father, Featherstone Lake Osler (1805–1895), the son of a shipowner at Falmouth, Cornwall, was a former Lieutenant in the Royal Navy and served on HMS Victory. In 1831 Featherstone Osler was invited to serve onHMS Beagle as the science officer on Charles Darwin‘s historic voyage to the Galápagos Islands, but he turned it down as his father was dying. As a teenager Featherstone Osler was aboard HMS Sappho when it was nearly destroyed by Atlantic storms and left adrift for weeks. Serving in the Navy he was ship-wrecked offBarbados. In 1837 Featherstone Osler retired from the Navy and emigrated to Canada, becoming a ‘saddle-bag minister’ in rural Upper Canada. When Featherstone Osler and his bride (Ellen Free Picton) arrived in Canada they were nearly ship-wrecked again on Egg Island in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The Oslers had several children and William was the brother of Britton Bath Osler and Sir Edmund Boyd Osler.

 Early life

William Osler was born in Bond HeadCanada West (now Ontario) on July 12, 1849, and raised after 1857 in Dundas, Ontario. (He was called William after William of Orange, who won the Battle of the Boyne on July 12, 1690.)

Educated at the original Trinity College School in Weston Ontario, as a teenager William Osler’s aim was to follow his father into the Anglican ministry and to that end he entered Trinity College, Toronto (now a constituent college of the University of Toronto) in the autumn of 1867. However, his chief interest proved to be medicine and, forsaking his original intention, he enrolled in the Toronto School of Medicine. This was a proprietary, or privately owned institution, not to be confused with the Medical Faculty of the University of Toronto, which was then not active as a teaching body. Osler left the Toronto School of Medicine after being accepted to the MDCMprogram at McGill University Faculty of Medicine in Montreal. He received his medical degree (MDCM) in 1872.


Following post-graduate training in Europe, Osler returned to McGill University Faculty of Medicine as a professor in 1874. It is here that he created the first formalizedjournal club. In 1884, he was appointed Chair of Clinical Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia and in 1885, was one of the seven founding members of the Association of American Physicians, a society dedicated to “the advancement of scientific and practical medicine.” When he left Philadelphia in 1889, his farewell address Aequanimitas[3] was on the equanimity necessary for physicians.

Dr. Osler in 1909, in the Bodleian Library, Oxford.

In 1889, he accepted the position as the first Physician-in-Chief of the new Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland USA. Shortly afterwards, in 1893, Osler was instrumental in the creation of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and became one of the school’s first professors in medicine. Osler quickly increased his reputation as a clinician, humanitarian and teacher. He presided over a rapidly expanding domain. In the Hospital’s first year of operation, when it had 220 beds, 788 patients were seen for a total of over 15,000 days of treatment. Sixteen years later, when Osler left for Oxford, over 4,200 patients were seen for a total of nearly 110,000 days of treatment.

In 1905, he was appointed to the Regius Chair of Medicine at Oxford, which he held until his death. He was also a Fellow of Christ Church, Oxford. During his time at Oxford, he met many aspiring doctors, a notable example being Wilder Penfield.

In 1911, he initiated the Postgraduate Medical Association, of which he was the first President.[4]

Osler was created a baronet in the Coronation Honours List of 1911 for his many contributions to the field of medicine.


Perhaps Osler’s greatest contribution to medicine was to insist that students learn from seeing and talking to patients and the establishment of the medical residency. This latter idea spread across the English-speaking world and remains in place today in most teaching hospitals. Through this system, doctors in training make up much of a hospital’s medical staff. The success of his residency system depended, in large part, on its pyramidal structure with many interns, fewer assistant residents and a single chief resident, who originally occupied that position for years. While at Hopkins Osler established the full-time, sleep-in residency system whereby staff physicians lived in the Administration Building of the Hospital. As established, the residency was open-ended, and long tenure was the rule. Doctors spent as long as seven or eight years as residents, during which time they led a restricted, almost monastic life.

He liked to say, “He who studies medicine without books sails an uncharted sea, but he who studies medicine without patients does not go to sea at all.” His best-known saying was “Listen to your patient, he is telling you the diagnosis,” which emphasises the importance of taking a good history.[2]

The contribution to medical education of which he was proudest was his idea of clinical clerkship — having third- and fourth-year students work with patients on the wards. He pioneered the practice of bedside teaching making rounds with a handful of students, demonstrating what one student referred to as his method of “incomparably thorough physical examination.” Soon after arriving in Baltimore Osler insisted that his medical students attend at bedside early buy zyban online indiacheap zyban in their training: by their third year they were taking patient histories, performing physicals and doing lab tests examining secretions, blood and excreta.

The Four Doctors by John Singer Sargent, 1905, depicts the four physicians who founded Johns Hopkins Hospital. The original hangs in the William H. Welch Medical Library of Johns Hopkins University.
From left to right: William Henry WelchWilliam Stewart Halsted, Osler, Howard Kelly

He reduced the role of didactic lectures and once said he hoped his tombstone would say only, “He brought medical students into the wards for bedside teaching.” He also said, “I desire no other epitaph … than the statement that I taught medical students in the wards, as I regard this as by far the most useful and important work I have been called upon to do.” Osler fundamentally changed medical teaching in the North America, and this influence, helped by a few such as the Dutch internist Dr.P.K. Pel, spread to medical schools across the globe.

Osler was a prolific author and a great collector of books and other material relevant to the history of medicine. He willed his library to the Faculty of Medicine of McGill University where it now forms the nucleus of McGill University’s Osler Library of the History of Medicine, which opened in 1929. The printed and extensively annotated catalogue of this donation is entitled “Bibliotheca Osleriana: a catalogue of books illustrating the history of medicine and science, collected, arranged and annotated by Sir William Osler, Bt. and bequeathed to McGill University”.[5] Osler was a strong supporter of libraries and served on the library committees at most of the universities at which he taught and was a member of the Board of Curators of the Bodleian Library in Oxford. He was instrumental in founding the Medical Library Association in North America and served as its second President from 1901-1904. In Britain he was the first (and only) President of the Medical Library Association of Great Britain and Ireland[6] and also a President of the Bibliographical Society of London (1913).[7]

Osler was a prolific author and public speaker and his public speaking and writing were both done in a clear, lucid style. His most famous work, The Principles and Practice of Medicine’ quickly became a key text to students and clinicians alike. It continued to be published in many editions until 2001 and was translated into many languages. (See Osler Library Studies in the History of Medicine vol. 8.)[8] It is notable in part for supporting the use of Bloodletting as recently as 1923.[9] Though his own textbook was a major influence in medicine for many years, Osler described Avicenna as the ‘author of the most famous medical textbook ever written.’ He noted that Avicenna’s Canon of Medicine remained ‘a medical bible for a longer time than any other work.[10] Osler’s essays were important guides to physicians. The title of his most famous essay, Aequanimitas, espousing the importance of imperturbability, is the motto on the Osler family crest and is used on the Osler housestaff tie and scarf at Hopkins.


Osler is well known in the field of gerontology for the speech he gave when leaving Hopkins to become the Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford. His speech “The Fixed Period”, given on 22 February 1905, included some controversial words about old age. Osler, who had a well-developed humorous side to his character, was in his mid-fifties when he gave the speech and in it he mentioned Anthony Trollope‘s The Fixed Period (1882), which envisaged a College where men retired at 67 and after a contemplative period of a year were ‘peacefully extinguished’ by chloroform. He claimed that, “the effective, moving, vitalizing work of the world is done between the ages of twenty-five and forty” and it was downhill from then on. Osler’s speech was covered by the popular press which headlined their reports with “Osler recommends chloroform at sixty”. The Fixed Period speech is included in the book of his collected addresses, “Aequanimitas, with other Addresses to Medical Students etc.”)

 Personal life & Family

An inveterate prankster, he wrote several humorous pieces under the pseudonym “Egerton Yorrick Davis”, even fooling the editors of the Philadelphia Medical Newsinto publishing a report on the imaginary phenomenon of penis captivus, on December 13, 1884.[11] The letter (still cited in all seriousness in a number of textbooks) was apparently a response to a report on the phenomenon of vaginismus reported three weeks previously in the Philadelphia Medical News by Osler’s colleague Theophilus Parvin.[12]

Davis, a prolific writer of letters to medical societies, purported to be a retired US Army surgeon living in Caughnawaga, Quebec (now called Kahnawake), author of a controversial paper on the obstetrical habits of Native American tribes which was suppressed and unpublished. Osler would enhance Davis’ myth by signing Davis’ name to hotel registers and medical conference attendance lists; Davis was eventually reported drowned in the Lachine Rapids in 1884.[12]

Throughout his life, Osler was a great admirer of the 17th century physician and philosopher Sir Thomas Browne.

He died at the age of 70, in 1919, during the Spanish influenza epidemic; his wife, Grace, lived another nine years but succumbed to a series of strokes. Sir William and Lady Osler’s ashes now rest in a niche within the Osler Library at McGill University. They had two sons, one of whom died shortly after birth. The other, Edward Revere Osler, was mortally wounded in combat in World War I at the age of 21, during the 3rd battle of Ypres (also known as the battle of Passchendaele). At the time of his death in August 1917, he was a Second Lieutenant in the (British) Royal Field Artillery; Lt. Osler’s grave is in the Dozinghem Military Cemetery in West Flanders,Belgium.[13] According to one biographer, Dr. Osler was emotionally crushed by the loss; he was particularly anguished by the fact that his influence had been used to procure a military commission for his son, who had mediocre eyesight.[14] Lady Osler (Grace Revere) was born in Boston in 1854; her paternal great-grandfather wasPaul Revere. In 1876, she married Samuel W. Gross, chairman of surgery at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia. Dr. Gross died in 1889 and in 1892 she married William Osler who was then professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins University.

In 1925, a monumental biography of William Osler was written by Harvey Cushing.[15] For this work, Cushing received the 1926 Pulitzer Prize for biography. A later and somewhat more balanced biography by Michael Bliss was published in 1999.[14] In 1994 Osler was inducted into the Canadian Medical Hall of Fame.[16]


Osler lent his name to a number of diseases, signs and symptoms, as well as having buildings named after him.


  • Osler’s sign is an artificially high systolic blood pressure reading due to the calcification of atherosclerotic arteries.
  • Osler’s nodes are raised tender nodules on the pulps of fingertips or toes, an autoimmune vasculitis that is suggestive of subacute bacterial endocarditis. They are usually painful, as opposed to Janeway lesions which are due to emboli and are painless.
  • Rendu-Osler-Weber disease (also known as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia) is a syndrome of multiple vascular malformations on the skin, in the nasal and oral mucosa, in the lungs and elsewhere.
  • Osler-Vaquez disease (also known as Polycythemia vera)
  • Osler-Libman-Sacks syndrome is an atypical, verrucous, nonbacterial, valvular and mural endocarditis. Final stage of systemic lupus erythematosus.
  • Osler’s filaria is a parasitic nematode.
  • Osler’s manoeuvre: In pseudohypertension, the blood pressure as measured by the sphygmomanometer is artificially high because of arterial wall calcification. Osler’s manoeuvre takes a patient who has a palpable, although pulseless, radial artery while the blood pressure cuff is inflated above systolic pressure; thus they are considered to have “Osler’s sign.”
  • Osler’s syndrome is a syndrome of recurrent episodes of colic pain, with typical radiation to back, cold shiverings and fever; due to the presence in Vater’s diverticulum of a free-moving gallstone which is larger than the orifice.
  • Osler’s triad: association of pneumoniaendocarditis, and meningitis.
  • Sphryanura osleri is a trematode worm found in the gills of a newt.


  • Sir William Osler Elementary School – Elementary School in Vancouver, British Columbia
  • Sir William Osler School – Elementary School in Winnipeg, Manitoba
  • Sir William Osler Elementary School – HWDSB Elementary School in Dundas, Ontario.
  • Sir William Osler High School,[17] Toronto, Ontario
  • Sir William Osler Public School[18] Simcoe County District School Board Elementary School in Bradford West Gwillimbury, Ontario and 3 kilometres away from his birthplace, Bond Head, Ontario.
  • Osler Library of the History of MedicineMcGill University, Montreal. Osler left his 8000 volume collection of books on the history of medicine to his alma mater. The library now holds over 100,000 volumes and is Canada’s de facto ‘national library of the history of medicine’.
  • Promenade Sir-William-Osler (Formerly the upper section of rue Drummond.) adjacent to the campus of McGill University in MontrealQuebec and leading to the McIntyre Medical Sciences Building, which houses the Osler Library of the History of Medicine.
  • William Osler Health System, was created in 1998 as a union of Peel Memorial Hospital, in Brampton, OntarioEtobicoke General Hospital in TorontoGeorgetown District Memorial Hospital which is now with Halton Health Care and the Brampton Civic Hospital which opened in late 2007. In 2011 it was described as “William Osler Health System is one of Canada’s largest community hospital corporations serving the growing and diverse communities of Brampton, Etobicoke and surrounding areas in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Osler’s hospitals include Etobicoke General, Brampton Civic and the soon-to-be redeveloped Peel Memorial which together provide a comprehensive range of acute care, ambulatory and ancillary health services.”
  • Osler House is the student mess for clinical medical students of Oxford University and is found at the John Radcliffe Hospital in Oxford.
  • Osler House is one of the two undergraduate hostels of the prestigious medical school JIPMERPondicherryIndia.
  • In 1999, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine created the Osler Textbook Room,[19] in the room in the Billings Building where Osler wrote “Principles and Practice of Medicine”. It houses a collection of Osler memorabilia.
  • In 2002 the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine established the Osler Center for Clinical Excellence,[20] devoted to teaching “the basic elements of a sound doctor patient relationship”.
  • Osler Hall is the name of the Dining Hall at Trinity College School, Port Hope, Ontario.
  • Osler Hall is the Main Hall of “Med Chi” or Medical and Chirurgical Faculty, the Maryland State Medical Society,[21] located on Cathedral Street in Baltimore Md. The Med Chi House of Delegates meets and deliberates in Osler Hall wherein hang numerous portraits of famous Maryland physicians including a large portrait of Sir William Osler MD


  1. ^ Johns Hopkins Medicine:The Four Founding Professors
  2. a b Tuteur, Amy (2008-11-19). “Listen to your patient”. The Skeptical OB. Retrieved 2012-04-09.
  3. ^
  4. ^ D. G. James. The portraiture of Sir William Osler.
  5. ^ Bibliotheca Osleriana
  6. ^ Crawford DS (December 2004). “The Medical Library Association of Great Britain and Ireland”Health Info Libr J 21 (4): 266–8. doi:10.1111/j.1471-1842.2004.00533.xPMID 15606885
  7. ^ “The Bibliographical Society – Past Presidents”. 2008-11-18. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
  8. ^ A History of William Osler’s The Principles and Practice of Medicine by Richard Golden. ISBN 0-7717-0615-4. Available from the Osler Library.
  9. ^ Bloodletting – UCLA Biomedical Library History and Special Collections for the Sciences
  10. ^ Journal of Perinatology (2007-09-06). “Access : Avicenna (AD 980 to 1037) and the care of the newborn infant and breastfeeding : Journal of Perinatology”.Nature Retrieved 2011-01-24.
  11. ^ Davis, Egerton Yorrick (1999). Golden, Richard L. ed. The Works of Egerton Yorrick Davis, MD: Sir William Osler’s Alter Ego. Osler Library studies in the history of medicine, no. 3. Montreal: Osler Library, McGill University. ISBN 978-0-7717-0548-9OCLC 48551127.  A collection of writings by the fictitious surgical character created by Osler, E.Y. Davis
  12. a b “Egerton Y. Davis“, Chris Nickson, Life in the Fastlane, November 16, 2008
  13. ^ Starling, P H (March 2003). “The case of Edward Revere Osler” (PDF). Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps 149 (1): 27–29. PMID 12743923.
  14. a b Bliss, Michael (1999)
  15. ^ Cushing, Harvey (1925)
  16. ^ “Sir William Osler”Canadian Medical Hall of Fame Retrieved 2010-03-24.
  17. ^ “Sir William Osler High School – Welcome to Sir William Osler High School”. 2010-06-10. Retrieved 2011-01-24.
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^